The Hidden History of Online Learning


This page was forked from a project set up by Mike Caulfield in 2014

Original Project Below

This collection of articles details some of the predecessors to today's online education initiatives.

Instructions and Tools

Let us know that you are working on this project by tweeting your site url with the #hhol hash tag (or just tweet out major edits you make).

The whole point of this is to eventually be able to write articles that reference this history without having to do historical legwork each time. For an example, see Personalization.


In Companies, Institutions, and Projects we document initiatives from all eras that had a positive or negative impact on the developement of effective online learning.

Theorists since ancient times have looked at the technologiesof learning. Here we look at them.

Related Precedents are things that are not strictly initiatives, machines, or software, but that we want to discuss anyway.

Popular Treatments in Culture and Media have had an interestingly limited view of what educational technology looks like. Or maybe the broader view has been hidden?

Machines and Software is not only about teaching machines, but some of the devices underlying developments -- light pens, for instance.

Miscellaneous because we want it all

Editors/Authors I Follow

Hapgood (mike)

Jim Groom (bava)

Mike Caulfield (hhol)

Audrey Watters (audrey)

Michael Berman (amberman)

Rolin Moe (rolin)

Gardner Campbell (gardner)

Chris Lott (lott)

Jon is not an educational technologist, but he is an honorary member of the tribe.

George Veletsianos (gv)


Eric Likness (eric)

Jason Green (jason)

M. C. Morgan (mcmorgan)